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In 1952, the K series flatheads was introduced, selling in parallel with the W series (which was discontinued after 1952), designed to compete with British sporting motorcycles of the time, as the American motorcycle Association allowed the 750 cc sidevalves to compete against 500 cc overhead-valve bikes.The K models featured a unit construction engine and transmission case, right side foot shift and left side foot brake, and evolved from 45 cubic inch (1952 to 1953) to 55 cubic inches by a 0.75in increase in stroke length (1954 to 1956) over its five year retail market run.He published his findings, and obtained patents, in 1927.Primarily, his Ricardo Head can be recognized on sight, because he moved the location of the exhaust valve farther from the center of the cylinder than the intake valve (they had previously been symmetrical).However they lived on for some time in the automotive world and were used on the Jeep for instance.Flatheads are no longer in common use for automobiles, although they are still used for some small-engine applications like lawnmowers.This has a number of advantages, primarily making the cylinder head much simpler, without the complex mechanism contained within the head of an overhead valve engine.
It may also lead to slightly easier cooling, as the valves (pushrods are very seldom used, Indian motorcycles are an example) are out of the way of the cylinder, making a cooling jacket simpler to construct.
The maximum compression ratio is also low at only about 7:1, further reducing efficiency (although it means the engine can run on low-octane fuel).
The greatest advancements to flathead engine technology were developed in the 1920s through experimentation by Sir Harry Ricardo of Great Britain, who improved the performance and efficiency of flathead engines by intently studying their flow characteristics.
Because of their design, the size of valves and the compression ratio are limited, which in turn reduces available power and economy. market, the 45ci DL model (1929 to 1931) and its technical descendant, the RL model (1932 to 1936), started Harley's side valve tradition in the 45 cubic inch displacement class. and Canadian Army's primary two-wheeled mount and subsequently as a civilian middleweight through 1952.
The flathead engine saw service in Harley-Davidson motorcycles beginning with the "Sport Model" opposed twin produced from 1919 to1923, and continuing in 1924 with single cylinder export-model 21ci and 30ci singles and continued in the Servi-Cars until 1973. The DL and RL models featured a total loss oiling system and were succeeded in 1937 by the WL 45, which had recirculating oil lubrication. The engine continued virtually unchanged with various G-based designations in the three wheeled "Servi-Car" until production ceased in 1973.
(See limitation below.) The line of intakes along the side of the engine leads to the alternate name L-block (or L-head), due to the cylinders having the shape of an upside-down L.