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In 27 BC, Augustus established the Roman Empire and inaugurated the Pax Romana, a period of stability and relative peace in which Italy flourished as the leading political and economic centre of the known world.
The death of the last of the good emperors, Marcus Aurelius, and the crisis of the third century marked the beginning of the decline of Rome.
The Bishop of Rome was granted religious primacy with the Edict of Thessalonica in 380 and the West collapsed amid barbarian invasions in 476, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus.The struggle for power between the Papacy and the Empire led to the decline of Imperial influence in Italy, especially after the Humiliation of Canossa of Emperor Henry IV and the victory of Italian forces over Friedrich Barbarossa in the Battle of Legnano: by the 12th century Italy was organized in independent city-states.The crusades launched by Pope Urban II and his successors proved to be successful for the maritime republics: Italy first experienced the Commercial Revolution, which caused the European economy to shift from agriculture to trade.New Year’s Day marks the start of a new year according to the Gregorian calendar. Although Romans began marking the start of their civil year on January 1 in their calendar (prior to the Gregorian calendar), the traditional springtime opening of the growing season and time for major military campaigns still held on as the popular New Year celebration.
A Palindrome Day happens when the day’s date can be read the same way backwards and forwards.
In archaic times, ancient Greeks, Etruscans and Celts established settlements in the south, the centre and the north of Italy respectively, while various Italian tribes and Italic peoples inhabitated the Italian peninsula and insular Italy.