Dating royal doulton
The following section provides background information on the methods used to form, decorate, finish, glaze, and fire ceramic wares.
Unlike their lower-fired counterparts, porcelain wares do not need glazing to render them impermeable to liquids and for the most part are glazed for decorative purposes and to make them resistant to dirt and staining.
Porcelain is fired at a higher temperature than earthenware so that the body can vitrify and become non-porous.
Porcelain originated in China, and it took a long time to reach the modern material.
The manufacture of porcelain became highly organised, and the kiln sites excavated from this period could fire as many as 25,000 wares.
By the time of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644 AD), porcelain wares were being exported to Europe.
Porcelain has been described as being "completely vitrified, hard, impermeable (even before glazing), white or artificially coloured, translucent (except when of considerable thickness), and resonant".
Like many earlier wares, modern porcelains are often biscuit-fired at around 1,000 °C (1,830 °F), coated with glaze and then sent for a second glaze-firing at a temperature of about 1,300 °C (2,370 °F) or greater.
It combines well with both glazes and paint, and can be modelled very well, allowing a huge range of decorative treatments in tablewares, vessels and figurines. The European name, porcelain in English, come from the old Italian porcellana (cowrie shell) because of its resemblance to the translucent surface of the shell.