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Louis and nationwide has been the explicit intents of federal, state, and local governments to create racially segregated metropolises. Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Race and Hispanic Origin of Householder– Families by Median and Mean Income: 1947 to 2009” (online data table).
Many of these explicitly segregationist governmental actions ended in the late 20 century but continue to determine today’s racial segregation patterns. Louis these governmental policies included zoning rules that classified white neighborhoods as residential and black neighborhoods as commercial or industrial; segregated public housing projects that replaced integrated low-income areas; federal subsidies for suburban development conditioned on African American exclusion; federal and local requirements for, and enforcement of, property deeds and neighborhood agreements that prohibited resale of white-owned property to, or occupancy by, African Americans; tax favoritism for private institutions that practiced segregation; municipal boundary lines designed to separate black neighborhoods from white ones and to deny necessary services to the former; real estate, insurance, and banking regulators who tolerated and sometimes required racial segregation; and urban renewal plans whose purpose was to shift black populations from central cities like St. Governmental actions in support of a segregated labor market supplemented these racial housing policies and prevented most African Americans from acquiring the economic strength to move to middle-class communities, even if they had been permitted to do so.
But it had some multifamily buildings that attracted renters from St. By 1980, Ferguson was 14 percent black; by 1990, 25 percent; by 2000, 52 percent; and by 2010, 67 percent. Louis were similarly experiencing an increasing share of black residents during this period.
Meanwhile, suburbs beyond the first ring to the south and west of St.
The pastor then gathered the owner and his neighbors for a prayer meeting, after which the owner told the agent he was no longer opposed to a black buyer. Louis ghetto and working as an assistant principal of a school in Wellston, an all-black St.
Louis suburb.1 His wife, Geraldine, was a teacher in a Missouri state special education school. “The Structures of Urban Poverty: The Reorganization of Space and Work in Three Periods of American History.” In Michael B.
Ferguson adjoined the very poor, all-black suburb of Kinloch where Williams had once lived (California Congresswoman Maxine Waters and the comedian and activist Dick Gregory grew up there).
Media accounts of how Ferguson became Ferguson have typically explained that when African Americans moved to this suburb (and others like it), “white flight” followed, abandoning the town to African Americans who were trying to escape poor schools in the city. Louis have remained almost all white, while the white population share of the city of St. Louis itself has been stable and has even started to grow. Louis’s downtown area and neighborhoods west of it to the city border went from 36 percent white in 2000 to 44 percent white in 2010. Until the mid-1960s, Ferguson was a “sundown town” from which African Americans were banned after dark.
Ferguson had blocked off the main road from Kinloch with a chain and construction materials but kept a second road open during the day so housekeepers and nannies could get from Kinloch to jobs in Ferguson.2 Kinloch and the middle-class white neighborhoods that also adjoin Ferguson were once indistinguishably part of unincorporated St. White flight certainly existed, and racial prejudice was certainly behind it, but not racial prejudice alone.